Sierra Leone is bordered within the north-west, north and north-east by simply the Republic Guinea, on the south-east by the Republic of Liberia and on south-west by simply the Atlantic Ocean. It has the area of 27, 925 square mls. The colony involving Sierra Leone originated from the sale and cession in 1787 by native chiefs to English settlers of any piece involving land intended like a home for African-american settlers who had been waifs working in london plus later it had been used as a settlement for liberated African slaves. Typically the hinterland was declared a British Protectorate on 21st September, 1896. Sierra Leone attained independence on 27th April, 61 and became a Republic in year 1971. Education is presented by both exclusive and state-sponsored colleges. The current program of education is usually 6-3-4-4 (that is definitely six years Main school, 3 years Jr Secondary School, several years Senior Second School and 4 years tertiary/higher education. This particular system is accompanied by non- official education.
CONCEPT OF SCHOOLING
Education will be frequently employed in typically the sense of teaching in the class room, laboratory, workshop or domestic science space and consists mostly within the imparting by simply the teacher, plus the acquisition simply by pupils, of info and mental while well as manual skills. A larger meaning than instruction is that of schooling. In other words most that goes on inside the school because part of typically the pupil’s life there. It includes, among various other things, relationship among pupils and teachers, pupils and pupils both in plus outside the school. M. S. Mill (1931) opined that whatever helps to shape the human becoming; to make typically the individual what he or she is or hinder him from getting what he or she is certainly not is section of his / her education. Implicitly education and learning is lifelong and even ubiquitous; it does not take sum total of all influences which get to make a particular person what they are, by birth to dying. It includes the property, our neighbors, and the street among some others.
Education is to be able to some extent the deliberate planned procedure devised and executed by the mentor with the purpose associated with imbuing the learner with certain information, skills, of head and body while well as modes of behavior deemed desirable. In part it’s the learner’s personal response to the atmosphere in which this individual lives. Education has three focal details: the individual/person after whom the educator’s influences are produced to bear; the society or group to which he or she belongs; and the whole context associated with reality within which usually the individual plus society play their own part. Man is definitely a social monster; he grows as being a person through typically the impact of character on personality; plus even for his / her basic physical wants he depends upon what help and cooperation regarding his fellow men and women. Without having society and the particular mutual support in addition to enrichment of activities which it gives you world is impossible and the life regarding man, in Hobbes’ words, is “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short. “
One of the particular fundamental facts involving human existence is usually the tension between your pull of the past and the particular forward urge straight into the future, involving stability and transformation, tradition and development. For effective lifestyle, man has to have a circle of security, an area of founded habits and relationship which forms dependable relationships. This is definitely also true involving society. For the effective functioning there must be an underlying continuity of cultures and outlook which usually preserves its id as a culture and safeguards this from the disruptive effects of change. Switch must be forever and not static but this modify in turn must be controlled by the basic practices of society. This is tradition that gives a nation its character and distinctiveness as a culture. The conservation of tradition therefore is definitely obviously crucial.
It has been recognized from time immemorial that the preservation of traditional training has an important part to play in the progress the child. The children these days are typically the adults of down the road; they must be trained therefore, to get and perpetuate typically the beliefs and ways of life unusual to the specific society to which in turn they belong. With regard to every society has the desire to preserve itself not only physically but as neighborhood consciously sharing specific aims, ideals and patterns of behavior. This type involving education is not necessarily formal inside schools by using class instruction but that effected indirectly through the family and with the impact on the subject of the individual regarding social influences plus customs which typically the child cannot avoid. In Sierra Leone this social training included elaborate ceremonies of initiation concerning feats of endurance by which young men and women must prove themselves worth the community. Typically the ultimate goal was basically to produce an individual who was honest, respectful, skilled, cooperative, and who else could comply with the particular social order involving the day. Because Aristotle once stated “the constitution of a state will suffer if training is neglected. The particular citizens of a new state should constantly be educated to accommodate the constitution from the state. The variety of character appropriate to a constitution is the run which continues to sustain it as this is also the particular state force which usually originally created it” (p. I).
CLASSIC EDUCATION IN CULTURE
Traditional education provides both a creative plus conservation function within society; this is an effective means of keeping a society’s customs, if not lifestyle. During the past the mother nature and needs associated with society played a vital part in determining the size of education. Professor M. V. C. Jeffreys (1950) once published in his guide, Glaucon, that “in a tranquil society the academic system will certainly often reflect the social pattern, whilst social uneasiness and even instability create prospect for using education and learning as an tool of social change”(p. 7). A similar view was distributed by John Dewey (1897) who opined that through schooling society can produce its very own purposes, will organize its individual means and resources and thus conserve itself with definiteness and economy within the direction in which in turn it wishes to move. Education feels both to the previous and the upcoming; inevitably it reflects the traditions plus character of community. Traditional education can be used to prepare for changes in society and even anticipate preventing changes or the effects of changes in society.
Traditional education conserves and hands on the customs in addition to ways of lifestyle which constitute the character of a community and maintains it is unity. It also helps society to be able to interpret its functions in new ways to meet the challenges of change, in search of ways or lines of development which can be consistent with the particular traditions and practices and will as well raise society to a more complete satisfaction of itself.
TRADITIONAL EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS IN SIERRA LEONE
Record reveals that at this time there were no conventional schools where youngsters were educated throughout Pre-colonial Sierra Leone. The Poro and even Bondo/Sande Secret Organizations were thought about while institutions to teach kids. fue were rose bush schools. And the education these rose bush schools provided has been informal. Children who experienced these magic formula societies were deemed capable of carrying out there their civic obligations. They became older people and can get married to and start life. They considered them selves together family. In other words each Secret Societies a new sense of comradeship and unity amongst members irrespective regarding family, clan or perhaps ethnic affiliation. That was therefore regarded as that children who had not been through these secret societies were not fully matured.
The Poro Secret Society is usually for boys. The spiritual head regarding the Poro Modern society is Pa Gbonu, seen only by older graduates or members. The physical heads are the particular Pa Sama Yorgbors and Pa Somanos. They direct the particular activities of the institution. The senior course instructors are the Pa Kashis, who usually teach and offer instructions to some other initiators. The Pennsylvania Manchiyas act as educators to the initiates while the Kachemas are the scaring state of mind. They scare the particular women and kids alike alongside the fresh initiates. The Rakas are the errand boys carrying messages around. The Yambas are the brain boys. The Bomos would be the senior prefects as the Sayboms are the prefects; in addition to the monitors will be the Gbanaboms. Informal is held in the Secret Poro Rose bush. The subjects trained include Creative Functional Arts, Performing Arts, Practical Agriculture, Remedies i. e. usage of local herbs to the treatment of different ailments), warfare plus other skills. Found in Creative Practical Martial arts initiates are educated how to produce fishing nets, baskets, mats, and carving wood and cleansing soap stones into distinct objects such since animals and human beings; in Performing Artistry initiates are trained singing, dancing and the use associated with Poro musical musical instruments. In Practical Farming initiates practice producing. Boys are taught to bear hardship without having complaint and increase familiar with it. Thus these are taken to be able to the farms regarding their teachers plus elders to do the job on pro bono basis. However during the harvest season initiates could pass through these farms taking whatever they want and eat with out being questioned by simply farm owners. Starts are taught in order to respect elders and even use of weapons to kill pets. In a similar vein initiates are usually taught how in order to use guns inside fighting in security of their areas. Other skills starts are taught contain making fish traps, fishing and looking net, and basketry. Within the use involving herbs initiates pay out money (some widely given) for treatment various sicknesses along with protection against enemies, evil spirits and snake bites. Initiates who wish to cause hurt to others employing herbs could ‘redeem’ the herb/medicine worried. Over all initiates are taught some sort of new Language talked only by people called Ke Sornor. For example fonka trika meaning We are talking to an individual; fonka bonomi that means Talk to me. The employ of this fresh Language makes participants very proud plus feel different coming from non-initiates. Graduates take place out with brand new names such as Lamp, Langba and Kolerr. A graduating ceremony climaxes the event.